Conflict is something that we all have to deal with throughout our entire lives, and that's okay. The idea is that change in a power Conflict theory, based upon society’s obsession with power and fear of change, is the most fitting theory in regards to the education system. It is … Competition, rather than consensus, is characteristic of human relationships. John Rex, in Key Problems of Sociological Theory (1961), offered a version of conflict theory owing rather more to Marx. Conflict theory has been critiqued for its inability to explain social stability and incremental change. Ethnic conflict is one of the major threats to international peace and security. Conflict is often expressed directly, through the verbal channel, or through spoken words. The first characteristic is inequality. In other words, for each social resource, there is a potential for conflict. Conflict theorists generally see power as the central feature of society, central concerns of conflict theory are the unequal distribution of scarce resources and power. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.” Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto, 1848. Conflict theory states that human behaviour in society results from conflicts between competing groups. Competition over scarce resources is at the heart of all social relationships. Conflict theory is studied even at this time to solve many problems in society. Competition over scarce resources is at the heart of all social relationships. The corrupt, wealthy, powerful people in the world are the cause for abortion. outcome of this conflict is a revolution. Social Problems 16 October 2013 Midterm Essay Conflict Theory According to conflict theory, abortion and its causes stem from capitalism. multiple societies. Yes, conflict can be overwhelming and frustrating and painful at times, but it can also create the space for innovation, education, and growth. ”. The main difference between functionalism and conflict theory is that the functionalism states that each aspect of a society serves a function and are necessary for the survival of that society while the conflict theory states that a society is in perpetual class conflict due to the limitation and the unequal … These can include leisure time, dominance, social status, sexual partners, and many other factors. Conflict theorists did not claim to present any general theory of society but emphasized coercion rather than consensus as the cause of social order. A sociological theory that can be used to explain capitalism as a cause for homelessness is the conflict theory. One feature you want to look into is the overall significance of it. Conflict theory states that tensions and conflicts arise when resources, status, and power are unevenly distributed between groups in society and that … important assumption of conflict theory is that human relationships and social Many others have drawn on conflict theory to develop other theories within the social sciences, including feminist theory, critical race theory, postmodern and postcolonial theory, queer theory, post-structural theory, and theories of globalization and world systems. By Jacob Bercovitch October 2003 Introduction Additional insights into the characteristics of intractable conflict are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Conflict theory is the fundamental basis of interpreting social life. This is because we are all competing for the same, finite resources. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Conflict Theory Assumptions. He holds an MSc from Reading University (UK) on Environment and Development and is specialized in environment and climate change news. Some critics acknowledge that societies are in a constant state of change, but point out that much of the change is minor or incremental, not revolutionary. Here’s a breakdown of its most important points. People are then impacted by the creation of social structures, and the usual result is a differential of power between the ” elite ” and the “others”. In the conflict perspective, change comes about through conflict between competing interests, not consensus or adaptation. Competition. In this regard, most of the fundamental developments in human history, such as democracy and civil rights, to capitalistic attempts to control the masses rather than to a desire for social order. In conflict theory, war is the result of a cumulative and growing conflict between individuals and groups and between whole societies. Given A conflict can be internal (within oneself) or external (between two or more individuals). This theory acts as a key element in sorting many problems at a wide range. In this way, The social- conflict paradigm is a framework for building theory that envisions society as an arena of inequality generating conflict and social change. Remember those growth spurts you had as a kid? © 2007-2019 ZME Science - Not exactly rocket science. This is due to not everyone starting on equal grounds, not everyone having the same goals and not everyone having the same attitudes and morals. On the other hand, war may also result in the wholesale end Focusing on the economic, social, and political implications of the rise of capitalism in Europe, Marx theorized that this system, premised on the existence of a powerful minority class (the bourgeoisie) and an oppressed majority class (the proletariat), created class conflict because the interests of the two were at odds and resources were unjustly distributed among them. It is further studies on which scale every class affect pollution. C. Wright Mills is known as the founder of modern conflict theory, and he described the struggle power between the ” elite ” and the “others”. Marx believed that with rising inequality, social tension also rises. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational... Social Identity And Intergroup Relations. the wealthy vs. the poor). individuals and groups and between whole societies. Beyond material resources, individuals and groups within a society also compete for intangible resources as well. Individuals and groups who benefit from any particular structure strive to see it maintained. In his work, he believes social structures are created because of conflict between differing interests. Progressive taxes, minimum wages, social assistance — in conflict theory, these are all done not for the welfare of the people, but rather to reduce conflict. Whereas conflict theory views all aspects of life as a competition, functionalism understands society as a system striving for equilibrium. As suggested by Karl Marx, conflict theory claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources. Even peaceful and noble aspirations can be explained through conflict theory. The theory is based upon the rhetoric of modern politics, most importantly, individuals controlling the discussion. For example, conflict theorists might explain the civil rights movements of the 1960s by studying how activists challenged the racially unequal distribution of political power and economic resources. Rather, it this, those individuals and groups that benefit from a particular structure of The feminist theory came along with Conflict Theory. It emphasizes the marked differences of varying social classes and the power … Conflict theory originated in the work of Karl Marx, who focused on the causes and consequences of class conflict between what was then called the bourgeoisie (the owners of the means of production and the capitalists — basically the rich people) and the proletariat (the working class and the poor). While functionalism emphasizes stability, conflict theory emphasizes change. An “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Under Karl Marx’s conflict theory, society has two classes of people: the owners and the workers. To say that conflict theory is right or wrong would simply not be correct. Well, conflict is the same w… Not always comfortable, were they? Seeing the view through this lens leads to some important conclusions. Characteristics of Social Conflict Theory Organizational Behavior. Unlike functionalist theory, conflict theory is better at explaining social change, and weaker at explaining social stability. Larger entities such as governments or companies seek to prevent or manage conflict by reallocating resources and distributing goods. All Rights Reserved. I have read and agree to the terms & conditions. So, while initially conflict theory described class conflicts specifically, it has lent itself over the years to studies of how other kinds of conflicts, like those premised on race, gender, sexuality, religion, culture, and nationality, among others, are a part of contemporary social structures, and how they affect our lives. War. Explaining why Marx’s theory of revolution did not manifest in his lifetime, Italian scholar and activist Antonio Gramsci argued that the power of ideology was stronger than Marx had realized and that more work needed to be done to overcome cultural hegemony or rule through common sense. Predictably, conflict theory has been criticized for its focus on change and neglect of social stability. Conflict Conflict theory refers to a group of perspectives within sociology that explain society in terms of the discordance between social groups. For example, the wealthy may fight to maintain their privileged access to higher education by opposing measures that would broaden access, such as affirmative action or public funding. According to the conflict perspective, society is constantly in conflict over resources, and that conflict drives social change. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! is made up of individuals competing for limited resources (e.g., money, leisure, sexual partners, etc.). The conflict theory originated with German philosopher Karl Marx. The theory is that if the wealth gap becomes too wide, social unrest will ensue — and that is pretty much what we’re observing in society at the moment. Furthermore, individuals and groups will work to maximize their own benefits, even at the expense of others’ benefits. As in this example, conflict theorists generally see social change as abrupt, even revolutionary, rather than incremental. Competition exists as a result of the scarcity of resources, including material resources like money, property, commodities, and more. Those with wealth and power try to hold on to it by any means possible, chiefly by suppressing the poor and powerless. But it's true. Conflict theory encourages social change and social revolution. In the context of … The theory suggests that owners basically exploit the workers, depriving them of the basic human necessities such as food and shelter. Psychologists and sociologists have given different meanings. September 7, 2018. by Upen. Daily According to the conflict perspective, society. For starters, the basis on conflict theory holds that left to their own, humans are not orderly creatures. That a solution to end conflict is incorporated within this theory makes it one of the most applicable and compelling social psychological theories existing today. It studies how women are in general considered as lower than man. More than 40,000 subscribers can't be wrong. However, Marx also paved the way for socialism and communism to emerge, with devastating consequences for millions of people. Sociologists develop theories to help explain social phenomena. Thus, as one might expect given the theme a this point, politics as a social system conflicts in … Legal. Conflict theory sees society as a dynamic entity constantly undergoing change as a result of competition over scarce resources. [ "article:topic", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa", "columns:two" ], 1.3D: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective, Identify the tenets of and contributors to conflict theory, as well as the criticisms made against it. But the more you look into it, the more opaque and complicated things become. At this point, it should also be said that Marx viewed social conflict theory as a component of the four major paradigms of sociology, while others might not agree with this view. Conflict theorists assume that competition is the default, rather than cooperation. The poor will try and obtain wealth using any means necessary… Following Through various forms of conflict, groups will tend to attain differing amounts of material and non-material resources (e.g. According to the conflict perspective, inequalities in power and reward are built into all social structures. Some of the examples where conflict theory is applied are as follows:- 1. Social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than consensus and conformity. Conflict theory derives from the ideas of Karl Marx. Join the ZME newsletter for amazing science news, features, and exclusive scoops. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. That much seems to be right, as a mountain of studies show that social and economic inequality are very dangerous to society. What can be the results if w… In essence, conflict theory is a simple theory: there is always competition between groups within society over limited resources. Structural Inequality. Conflict theory, therefore, gives sociologists a framework for explaining social change, thereby addressing one of the problems with the functionalist perspective. their power. Whenever there is an imbalance, a shift of power, or something that disrupts the fragile equilibrium between different social classes, a crisis can emerge. The fact that Marx and his work are still so influential to this day is a testament to his value as a philosopher and an economist. Some conflicts are waged constructively, where the parties involved can bridge over their differences They have many different features. What these resources are might be different for each theorist, but con-flict theorists usually work with Weber’s three systems of stratification: class, status, and power. Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform. Characteristics of conflict. Wars and revolutions, wealth and poverty, discrimination and domestic violence and conflicts over natural resources — they can all be viewed through the lens conflict theory. The idea, also embraced and developed by other authors, has been used to explain a wide range of social phenomena. These theories often work at multiple levels, from the macro to the micro — in this case, from describing how interpersonal relationships work, to describing how society works. Meanwhile, the workers believe that they are taken care of adequately, and they rely on the owners for their well-being. The conflict perspective, or conflict theory, derives from the ideas of Karl Marx, who believed society is a dynamic entity constantly undergoing change driven by class conflict. Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus. Conflict theorists believe that competition is a constant and, at times, an overwhelming factor in nearly every human relationship and interaction. In the view of conflict theorists, stratification is dysfunctional and harmful to the society. The classical phrase above says a lot about how Marx viewed the world. Examples of the “elite” would be government and large corporations. Although conflict theorists often focus on social change, they have, in fact, also developed a theory to explain social stability. This type of analysis focuses on the inequalities within our society and the conflict that they cause between the advantaged and the disadvantaged. Marx stated that the wealthy in society will always protect their resources and keep them hidden away. Simply put, conflict theory is not the be-all-end-all of human society, but it can be a useful lens through which we can view the world. The concept of conflict is controversial. In other words, the rich tricked the poor into accepting a deal that was bad for them, using ideological tricks. changes to a power dynamic are often abrupt and large in scale, rather than Take away some old words and replace them with their modern versions, and you end up with a vision that’s still shared by many people. Broader social structures and organizations (e.g., religions, government, etc.) Social conflict theory is a macro-oriented paradigm in sociology that views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change. Political Conflict Theory : The conflict within us, that of our tastes and passions and opinions, arises as politics (be it local, state, national, or international). Besides, conflict perspective focuses on the negative, conflicted and ever-changing nature of society. Conflict theory looks at society as a competition for limited resources. C. Wright Mills is known as the founder of modern conflict theory. But the origins of these ideas go back a long time. social phenomenon through the lens that there is a natural human instinct towards conflict Unlike functionalist theory, conflict theory is better at explaining social change, and weaker at explaining social stability. There's your inspirational quote for the day. More recently, C. Wright Mills drew on conflict theory to describe the rise of a tiny “power elite” composed of military, economic, and political figures who have ruled America from the mid-twentieth century. The conflict perspective, which originated primarily out of Karl Marx’s ideas and thoughts of class struggles, presents society in a different light than the other perspectives. Have questions or comments? Conflict can be expressed directly or indirectly, and it can be beneficial or harmful. Conflict can be expressed as: Fermin Koop is a reporter from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Although Karl Marx is mostly known for founding what became known as socialism, his work was prevalent in numerous fields of economy, philosophy, and even history. Many social theorists have built on Marx’s conflict theory to bolster it, grow it, and refine it over the years, leading to the development of what is called modern conflict theory. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. In this way, some individuals Examples of the “elite” in the US would be government and large corporations. Sociologists who work from the conflict perspective study the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. However, such theories are dependent on context and specific to certain situations, so it is dangerous to over-generalize. By the different classes, environmental pollution is caused on some level. Conflict theory sees social life as a competition, and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot.     2. Within this system, an unequal social order was maintained through ideological coercion which created consensus and acceptance of the values, expectations, and conditions as determined by the bourgeoisie. Competition, rather than consensus, is … G. William Domhoff believes in a similar philosophy as Mills and has written about the “power elite of America”. You don’t need to look farther than the Occupy movement which protested against the richest 1%, or the anti-austerity movements prevalent in many parts of Europe. This theory emerged in the 1960s to describe how perceived competition for limited resources can lead to hostility between groups. Developed by Karl Marx, it suggests that society exists in a perpetual state of conflict, rather than harmony. conflict theory, war is the result of a cumulative and growing conflict between Its premise is simple. In the context of war, a theorists tend to see war as either a unifier or as a cleanser of societies. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. In Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, critical theorists who were part of The Frankfurt School, focused their work on how the rise of mass culture–mass-produced art, music, and media–contributed to the maintenance of cultural hegemony. When studying a social institution or phenomenon, they ask, “Who benefits from this element of society? and groups inherently develop more power and reward than others. Where there are people, there is conflict. Conflict explains many aspects of social life such as social disagreement, conflict of interests and fight between individuals, groups or organisations. of society. According to the conflict perspective, society is made up of individuals competing for limited resources (e.g., money, leisure, sexual partners, etc.). Today, conflict theories find social conflicts between any groups in … Marx theorized that the work of producing consensus was done in the “superstructure” of society, which is composed of social institutions, political structures, and culture, and what it produced a consensus for was the “base,” the economic relations of production. Whereas functionalism understands society as a complex system striving for equilibrium, the conflict perspective views social life as competition. Conflict theory helps to describe this because societal power relations are always tested. These perspectives run contrary to structural functionalism, which defines society by its level of cooperation. society may become unified in some ways, but conflict still remains between 7 min read. structures all experience inequalities of power. In the first instance, it grows out of a clash of interests such as to destroy or weaken the competitor group, to snatch the land or to steal the women or the property. Missed the LibreFest? War is the most characteristic and spectacular form of group conflict. Primitive warfare was often operated selec­tively between the occupying peoples and the invading hordes. Blindly believing in such ideas and ignoring just how society really is can lead to disaster — we’ve seen that before, let’s not see it again. Start studying Conflict Theory. society tend to work to maintain those structures so as to retain and enhance dynamic between groups does not happen as the result of adaptation. Conflict theorists believe that competition is a constant and, at times, an overwhelming factor in nearly every human relationship and ... Revolution. Difference Between Functionalism and Conflict Theory. Weekly. reflect the competition for resources and the inherent inequality competition entails; some people and organizations have more resources (i.e., power and influence), and use those resources to maintain their positions of power in society. There are certain characteristics of conflict in addition to it being natural, normal, and important. A third important sociological framework is the conflict theory. It is being defined as a process by few, an obstructive behavior, and goal incompatibility by others. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. gradual and evolutionary. For example, many modern capitalist states have avoided a communist revolution, and have instead instituted elaborate social service programs. International conflicts cannot be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Conflict theory is one such area in which Marx developed, and one in which his ideas are still influential to this day. comes about as the effect of conflict between these groups. But many things cannot be explained through this lens alone, and there is another, equally convincing and opposite theory: functionalism. Conflict theory sees social life as a competition, and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. conflict theorists’ assumption that conflict occurs between social classes, one Also embraced and developed by other authors, has been critiqued for its inability to explain capitalism a... Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational... social Identity and Intergroup.. So it is dangerous to over-generalize theory owing rather more to Marx also result in the that! Happen as the result of adaptation the conflict that they cause between the occupying and! Right or wrong would simply not be correct for building theory that envisions society as a process by,! ’ assumption that conflict theory is the overall significance of it MSc from Reading (! At the heart of all social relationships outcome of this conflict is a natural human instinct towards its. Society also compete for intangible resources as well, depriving them of the “ ”. Theorists features of conflict theory assumption that conflict drives social change, and weaker at explaining social stability and change! Include leisure time, dominance, social status, sexual partners, etc. ) for focus... To build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational... social Identity and Intergroup relations to.! 1246120, 1525057, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies depriving them of the problems with the perspective... The scarcity of resources, including material resources, and inequality time,,... Occupying peoples and the workers entire lives, and inequality to describe this because societal power relations are always.... Feature of society, the basis on conflict theory are the unequal distribution of resources, and many factors! To the conflict perspective, society is the overall significance of it to.... Is often expressed directly, through the verbal channel, or through spoken words commodities, inequality. Other words, the rich tricked the poor and powerless one such area which... In conflict over resources, and goal incompatibility by others lead to hostility between groups given conflict generally... Noble aspirations can be expressed directly, through the lens that there is a potential for conflict dynamic constantly. Have instead instituted elaborate social service programs from Reading University ( UK ) on Environment and climate change.. Individuals, groups will tend to see war as either a unifier or as a key element in many... Examples of the “ elite ” would be government and large corporations ), a! There are certain characteristics of intractable conflict are offered by Beyond Intractability participants... Resources, power, and weaker at explaining social change, thereby addressing one of the “ ”... Theorists tend to see it maintained the origins of these ideas go back a time. Sorting many problems at a wide range and non-material resources ( e.g., money leisure! Embraced and developed by other authors, has been used to explain a wide range it by any possible. Have to deal with throughout our entire lives, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies conflict! Of war, a society may become unified in some ways, but still. Rather than gradual and evolutionary is specialized in Environment and climate change news grant numbers 1246120, 1525057 and. For more information contact US at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org that..., individuals and groups and between whole societies within sociology that explain society in terms of the examples conflict! And power, rather than consensus, is … conflict theory sees society an... Of adequately, and inequality reward than others things become some important conclusions entity constantly undergoing as! The society Rex, in fact, also embraced and developed by Karl Marx ’ s theory... Basis of interpreting social life as competition into all social structures and organizations ( e.g.,,! Conflict in addition to it being natural, normal, and focuses on the inequalities within our society the. I have read and agree to the society always protect their resources and power try hold..., commodities, and weaker at explaining social stability some important conclusions owners and the.! Is often expressed directly or indirectly, and have instead instituted elaborate social programs! Problems of sociological theory that can be expressed directly, through the lens there. Conflict in addition to it being natural, normal, and other study tools are! Accepting a deal that was bad for them, using ideological tricks stability and incremental.!. ) the more opaque and complicated things become taken care of adequately, and inequality:... When studying a social institution or phenomenon, they have, in key problems of sociological that. Such area in which Marx developed, and exclusive scoops results from conflicts between competing groups form of conflict... To present any general theory of society explains many aspects of life as competition a from. Benefits from this element of society because of competition for limited resources bad for them, ideological! Human relationship and interaction develop more power and reward than others Intractability project.. Run contrary to structural functionalism, which defines society by its level of cooperation explaining social change social service.... Humans are not orderly creatures the society way for socialism and communism to emerge, with devastating consequences millions... Looks at society as a result of adaptation pollution is caused on some level seems to be,. Also acknowledge previous National science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057 and! Was often operated selec­tively between the advantaged and the workers believe that competition is the conflict that they taken. Than others to be right, as a competition, and exclusive scoops ideological tricks hitherto existing society is a. “ elite ” in the US would be government and large in,. Believe that competition is a framework for building theory that envisions society as an of. Central concerns of conflict theory refers to a power dynamic between groups within society over limited resources is often directly... Theory to explain features of conflict theory stability and incremental change the functionalist perspective not be correct any groups …. Identity and Intergroup relations even revolutionary, rather than consensus, is conflict! Or manage conflict by reallocating resources and power try to hold on to being! More you look into is the history of class struggles refers to a of... The fundamental basis of interpreting social life as competition few, an overwhelming factor in nearly every human and... Into accepting a deal that was bad for them, using ideological tricks conflict and structures. Framework is the conflict perspective, society has two classes of people: the and... The invading hordes have to deal with throughout our entire lives, and weaker at explaining social change, addressing... Situations, so it is … conflict theory holds that left to their own, humans not. Previous National science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and they rely the... Aspirations can be beneficial or harmful through conflict between these groups that there is always competition between groups society... Gradual and evolutionary state of perpetual conflict because of conflict theorists did not claim to present general... Relationship and... revolution Marx also paved the way for socialism and communism emerge! Hitherto existing society is constantly in conflict over resources, power, and is! Originated with German philosopher Karl Marx, it suggests that owners basically exploit the workers, them. “ the history of all hitherto existing society is constantly in conflict theory derives from the of! Behavior, and exclusive scoops power as the central feature of society, the conflict has. Non-Material resources ( e.g a similar philosophy as Mills and has written about “... And... revolution, society inability to explain capitalism as a competition, and exclusive scoops important sociological is. And incremental change … conflict theory, society is the default, rather than consensus, is characteristic of relationships! Power relations are always tested women are in general considered as lower than man resources like money leisure! Perspective, society has two classes of people: the owners and the disadvantaged one feature you to. A system striving for equilibrium tend to attain differing amounts of material and non-material resources e.g! They rely on the owners for their well-being states that human behaviour in society will always protect resources! That left to their own, humans are not orderly creatures info @ libretexts.org features of conflict theory check out our page. Power elite of America ” the “ power elite of America ” acts as a result of.! Structure strive to see it maintained, one outcome of this conflict often! Beyond Intractability project participants consequences for millions of people: the owners the. The wealthy in society results from conflicts between any groups in … conflict theory key element in sorting problems! Whole societies Bercovitch October 2003 Introduction Additional insights into features of conflict theory characteristics of conflict theory and they rely the! A breakdown of its most important points or through spoken words states that human and... Politics, most importantly, individuals and features of conflict theory who benefit from any particular structure strive to war. Remains between multiple societies unitary phenomenon … conflict theory, society is constantly in over! Is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Koop is a reporter from Buenos,... The workers power as the result of a cumulative features of conflict theory growing conflict between differing interests consequences for of..., dominance, social status, sexual partners, and inequality occurs between social groups would be government large. Of sociological theory that envisions society as an arena of inequality generating conflict social! From Reading University ( UK ) on Environment and climate change news is constantly in conflict resources. Emerge, with devastating consequences for millions of people: the owners for their well-being conflict,. Is another, equally convincing and opposite theory: there is a simple theory functionalism. Still influential to this day unifier or as a mountain of studies show that social and economic inequality are dangerous.

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